4K resolution refers to a horizontal display solution of approximately 4,000 pixels. Digital television receiver and digital filming normally use several different 4K resolutions. In television and consumer media, 3840 × 2160 ( 4K UHD ) is the dominant 4K standard, whereas the movie projection industry uses 4096 × 2160 ( DCI 4K ). The 4K television marketplace share increased as prices fell dramatically during 2014 and 2015 .
comparison of common air resolutions
Reading: 4K resolution – Flickroom.org
- 1 4K standards and terminology .
- 2 adoption .
- 3 history .
- 4 Broadcasting .
- 5 Resolutions .
- 6 Recording .
- 7 See besides .
- 8 References .
4K standards and terminology .
The term “ 4K ” is generic and refers to any resoluteness with a horizontal pixel count of approximately 4,000. : 2 several different 4K resolutions have been standardized by versatile organizations. The terms “ 4K ” and “ Ultra HD ” are used more widely in marketing than “ 2160p ”. While typically referring to motion pictures, some digital television camera vendors have used the term “ 4K photograph ” for still photograph, making it appear like an specially high resoluteness even though 3840×2160 pixels peer approximately 8.3 megapixels, which is not specially high for even photographs.
DCI Digital Cinema System Specification .
Comparison of DCI and UHD resolutions In 2005, Digital Cinema Initiatives ( DCI ), a big standards organization in the film diligence, published the Digital Cinema System Specification. This specification establishes exchangeable 2K and 4K container formats for digital cinema production, with resolutions of 2048 × 1080 and 4096 × 2160 respectively. : §4.3.1 The solution of the video content inside follows the SMPTE 428-1 standard, : §3.2.1 which establishes the surveil resolutions for a 4K distribution : : 6
- 4096 ×2160 (full frame, 256∶135 or ≈1.90∶1 aspect ratio)
- 3996 ×2160 (flat crop, 1.85∶1 aspect ratio)
- 4096 ×1716 (CinemaScope crop, ≈2.39∶1 aspect ratio)
2K distributions can have a inning pace of either 24 or 48 FPS, while 4K distributions must have a frame rate of 24 FPS. : §220.127.116.11 Some articles claim that the terms “ 2K ” and “ 4K ” were coined by DCI and refer entirely to the 2K and 4K formats defined in the DCI criterion. however, usage of these terms in the film industry predates the publication of the DCI standard, and they are by and large understand as fooling terms for any resolution approximately 2000 or 4000 pixels in width, rather than names for particular resolutions. : 2 : 109
SMPTE UHDTV standard .
In 2007, the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers published SMPTE ST 2036-1, which defines parameters for two UHDTV systems called UHDTV1 and UHDTV2. The standard defines the take after characteristics for these systems :
- A resolution of
3840 × 2160
7680 × 4320
(UHDTV2) : §5.2
- Square (1∶1) pixels, for an overall image aspect ratio of 16∶9 : §5.1
- A framerate of 23.976, 24, 25, 29.97, 30, 50, 59.94, 60, 100, 119.88, or 120Hz with progressive scan : §1.2
- RGB, Y′CBCR 4:4:4, 4:2:2, or 4:2:0 pixel encoding : §7.7
- 10bpc (30bit/px) or 12bpc (36bit/px) color depth : §1.2
- Colorimetry characteristics as defined in the standard, including color primaries, quantization parameters, and the electro-optical transfer function. These are the same characteristics later standardized in ITU-R BT.2021. UHDTV1 systems are permitted to use BT.709 color primaries up to 60Hz. : §6.2
ITU-R UHDTV standard .
In 2012, the International Telecommunication Union, Radiocommunication Sector published Recommendation ITU-R BT.2021, besides known as the Ultra High Definition Television ( UHDTV ) standard. It adopts the lapp trope parameters defined in SMPTE ST 2036-1. Although the UHDTV standard does not define any official names for the formats it defines, ITU typically uses the terms “ 4K ”, “ 4K UHD ”, or “ 4K UHDTV ” to refer to the 3840 × 2160 organization in public announcements and crush releases ( “ 8K ” for the 7680 × 4320 system ). In some of ITU ‘s early standards documents, the terms “ UHDTV1 ” and “ UHDTV2 ” are used as shorthand.
CEA Ultra HD .
In October 2012, the Consumer Electronics Association ( CEA ) announced their definition of the term Ultra High-Definition ( or Ultra HD ) for use with marketing consumer display devices. CEA defines an Ultra HD product as a television, monitor, or projector with the following characteristics :
- A resolution of 3840 × 2160 or larger
- An aspect ratio of 1. 77∶1 (16∶9) or wider
- Support for color depth of 8bpc (24bit/px) or higher
- At least one HDMI input capable of supporting 3840 × 2160 at 24, 30, and 60Hz progressive scan (though not necessarily with RGB / Y′CBCR 4:4:4 color), and HDCP2.2
- Capable of processing images according to the color space defined in ITU-R BT.709
- Capable of upscaling HD content (i.e. 720p / 1080p)
The CEA definition does allow manufacturers to use other terms—such as 4K —alongside the Ultra HD logo. : 9 Since the resolution in CEA ‘s definition is entirely a minimum requirement, displays with higher resolutions such as 4096 × 2160 or 5120 × 2880 besides qualify as “ Ultra HD ” displays, provided they meet the other requirements .
2160p resolution .
Some 4K resolutions, like 3840 × 2160, are frequently casually referred to as 2160p. This appoint follows from the previous name convention used by HDTV and SDTV formats, which refer to a format by the phone number of pixels/lines along the vertical axis ( such as “ 1080p ” for 1920 × 1080 progressive read, or “ 480i ” for the 480-line lock SDTV formats ) quite than the horizontal pixel count ( ≈4000 or “ 4K ” for 3840 × 2160 ). The term “ 2160p ” could be applied to any format with a height of 2160 pixels, but it is most normally used in reference point to the 4K UHDTV resolution of 3840 × 2160 due to its association with the well-known 720p and 1080p HDTV formats. Although 3840 × 2160 is both a 4K resolution and a 2160p resolution, these terms can not constantly be used interchangeably since not all 4K resolutions are 2160 pixels tall, and not all 2160p resolutions are ≈4000 pixels wide-eyed. however, some companies have begun using the term “ 4K ” to describe devices with support for a 2160p resolution, tied if it is not stopping point to 4000 pixels wide. For example, many “ 4K ” crash cams only support a solution of 2880 × 2160 ( 4∶3 ) ; although this is a 2160p resolution, it is not a 4K resolution. conversely, Samsung released a 5120 × 2160 ( 64∶27 ) television, but marketed it as a “ 4K ” television despite its 5K-class resolution.
M+ or RGBW television controversy .
In 2015, LG Display announced the implementation of a newly technology called M+ which is the accession of white subpixel along with the even RGB dots in their IPS panel technology. The media and internet users late called this “ RGBW ” TVs because of the white submarine pixel. Most of the new M+ technology was employed on 4K television receiver sets which led to a controversy after tests showed that the accession of a egg white bomber pixel replacing the traditional RGB structure would reduce the resolving power by around 25 %. After tests done by Intertek in which the technical aspects of LG M+ TVs were analyzed and they concluded that “ the addressable resolution display is 2,880 ten 2,160 for each red, green, blue ”, in other words, the LG TVs were technically 2.8K as it became known in the controversy. Although LG Display has developed this engineering for practice in notebook display, outdoor and smartphones, it is more popular in the television receiver market due to the supposed 4K UHD marketed resolution but still being incapable of achieving true 4K UHD resolution as defined by the CTA as 3840×2160 active pixels with 8-bit per color. This negatively impacts the render of textbook, making it a bite fuzzy, which is specially noticeable when a television is used as a personal computer monitor.
CinemaWide 4K .
In 2022, Sony was granted the CinemaWide brand by the European Union Intellectual Property Office ( EUIPO ), in which the hallmark covers ‘Class 9 ‘ electronic devices, including smartphones. According to Sony and SID, the standard defines a CinemaWide 4K merchandise with the follow characteristics :
- A resolution of 3840 × 1644 or larger
- An aspect ratio of 21∶9
- Capable of playing back 4K resolution video (2160p) in an aspect ratio of 21∶9
- Capable of upscaling non-4K content (i.e. 720p / 1080p)
Sony Xperia smartphones are the most widely known products that equipped with CinemaWide 4K display, such as Xperia 1, Xperia 1 II and Xperia 1 III .
Video sharing web site YouTube and the television receiver diligence have adopted 3840 × 2160 as their 4K standard. As of 2014, 4K capacity from major broadcasters remained specify. On April 11, 2013, Bulb TV created by canadian serial entrepreneur Evan Kosiner became the foremost broadcaster to provide a 4K analogue groove and VOD content to cable and satellite companies in North America. The distribution channel is licensed by the canadian Radio-Television and Telecommunications Commission to provide educational content. however, 4K contented is becoming more widely available on-line including on Apple television, YouTube, Netflix, Hulu, and Amazon. By 2013, some UHDTV models were available to general consumers in the compass of US $ 600. As of 2015, prices on smaller computer and television panels had dropped below US $ 400.
In 2014, the Digital Video Broadcasting Project released a new plant of standards intended to guide the execution of high resolving power content in circulate television receiver. Dubbed DVB-UHDTV, it establishes two standards, known as UHD-1 ( for 4K content ) and UHD-2 ( for 8K content ). These standards use resolutions of 3840 × 2160 and 7680 × 4320 respectively, with framerates of up to 60 Hz, color depth up to 10 bpc ( 30 bit/px ), and HEVC encoding for transmittance. DVB is presently focusing on the implementation of the UHD-1 standard. DVB finalized UHD-1 Phase 2 in 2016, with the introduction of service by broadcasters expected in 2022. UHD-1 Phase 2 adds features such as high active range ( using HLG and PQ at 10 or 12 bits ), wide color gamut ( BT. 2022 / 2100 colorimetry ), and eminent frame rate ( up to 120 Hz ).
Video streaming .
YouTube, since 2010, and Vimeo allow a maximum upload resolution of 4096 × 3072 pixels ( 12.6 megapixels, aspect proportion 4:3 ). Vimeo ‘s 4K capacity is presently limited to by and large nature documentaries and technical school coverage. high Efficiency Video Coding ( HEVC or H.265 ) should allow streaming 4K content with a bandwidth of 20 to 30 Mbit/s. In January 2014, Naughty America launched the first gear adult video recording service streaming in 4K.
Mobile phone cameras .
The first mobile phones to be able to record at 2160p ( 3840×2160 ) were released in late 2013, including the Samsung Galaxy Note 3, which is able to record 2160p at 30 frames per second.
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In the year 2014, the OnePlus One was released with the choice to record DCi 4K ( 4096 × 2160 ) at 24 frames per second, a well as LG G3 and Samsung Galaxy Note 4 with optical prototype stabilization. In the years 2022 and 2022, mobile phone chipsets reached sufficient process exponent that mobile call vendors started releasing fluid phones that allow recording 2160p footage at 60 frames per second for a smooth and more realistic appearance.
Samsung UN105S9 105-inch ( 2,700 millimeter ) ultra-high-definition 4K television In 1984, Hitachi released the CMOS graphics processor ARTC HD63484, which was adequate to of displaying up to 4K resolving power when in monochromatic manner. The resolution was targeted at the bit-mapped background publication market. The first base commercially available 4K camera for cinematographic purposes was the Dalsa Origin, released in 2003. 4K engineering was developed by several inquiry groups in universities around the world, such as University of California, San Diego, CALIT2, Keio University, Naval Postgraduate School and others that realized respective demonstrations in venues such as IGrid in 2004 and CineGrid. YouTube began supporting 4K for video uploads in 2010 as a consequence of leading manufacturers producing 4K cameras. Users could view 4K video by selecting “ original ” from the choice settings until December 2013, when the 2160p option appeared in the timbre menu. In November 2013, YouTube began to use the VP9 video compression criterion, saying that it was more desirable for 4K than high Efficiency Video Coding ( HEVC ). Google, which owns YouTube, developed VP9. Theaters began projecting movies at 4K resoluteness in 2011. Sony was offering 4K projectors angstrom early as 2004. The first 4K home dramaturgy projector was released by Sony in 2012. Despite this, few finished films have 4K resolution as of 2022. evening for movies and television receiver shows shot using 6K or 8K cameras, about all finished films are edited in HD resolution and enlarged to fit a 4K format. Sony is one of the leading studios promoting UHDTV message, as of 2013 offering a fiddling over 70 movie and television titles via digital download to a specialized actor that stores and decodes the video. The large files ( ≈40 GB ), distributed through consumer broadband connections, raise concerns about data caps. In 2014, Netflix began streaming House of Cards, Breaking Bad, and “ some nature documentaries ” at 4K to compatible televisions with an HEVC decoder. Most 4K televisions sold in 2013 did not natively support HEVC, with most major manufacturers announcing support in 2014. Amazon Studios began shooting their full-length original series and newly pilots with 4K resolution in 2014. They are now presently available though Amazon Video. In March 2016 the first players and phonograph record for Ultra HD Blu-ray —a forcible optical disk format supporting 4K resolution and HDR at 60 frames per second—were released. On August 2, 2016 Microsoft released the Xbox One S, which supports 4K pour and has an Ultra HD Blu-ray magnetic disk drive, but does not support 4K bet on. On November 10, 2016 Sony released the PlayStation 4 Pro, which supports 4K streaming and bet on, though many games use checkerboard rendering or are upscaled 4K. On November 7, 2022, Microsoft released the Xbox One X, which supports of 4K cyclosis and bet on, though not all games are rendered at native 4K.
Home video projection .
Though experiencing rapid price drops Beginning in 2013 for viewing devices, the home cinema digital television projector market saw little expansion, with entirely a few manufacturers ( only Sony as of 2015 ) offer restrict 4K-capable lineups, with native 4K projectors commanding five-figure price tags well into 2015 before finally breaking the US $ 10,000 barrier. Critics state that at normal direct-view panel size and view distances, the excess pixels of 4K are redundant at the ability of normal human imagination. Projection dwelling cinema, on the other hand, hire a lot larger riddle sizes without necessarily increasing viewing distance to scale. JVC has used a proficiency known as “ e-shift ” to extrapolate extra pixels from 1080p Sources to display 4K on screens through upscaling or from native 4K Sources at a much lower price than native 4K projectors. This technology of non-native 4K entered its fourth generation for 2016. JVC used this like engineering to provide 8K flight pretense for Boeing that met the limits of 20/25 ocular acuity. Pixel shift, as described here, was pioneered in the consumer outer space by JVC, and later in the commercial space by Epson. That said, it is not the lapp thing as “ true ” 4K. More recently, some DLP projectors claim 4K UHD ( which the JVCs and Epsons do not claim ). As noted above, DCI 4K is 4096 × 2160, while 4K UHD is 3840 × 2160, producing a slight dispute in expression proportion preferably than a significant dispute in settlement. Traditional displays, such as LCD or OLED, are 3840 pixels across the shield, with each pixel being 1/3840th of the riddle width. They do not overlap—if they did, they would suffer reduce contingent. The diameter of each pixel is basically 1/3840th of the sieve width or 1/2160th of the screen height – either gives the same size pixel. That 3840 × 2160 works out to 8.3 megapixels, the official resolution of 4K UHD ( and consequently Blu-ray UHD disk ). The 4K UHD standard does not specify how big the pixels are, so a 4K UHD projector ( Optoma, BenQ, Dell, et aluminum. ) counts because these projectors have a 2718 × 1528 pixel structure. Those projectors process the true 4K of data and visualize it with overlapping pixels, which is what pixel shifting is. unfortunately, each of those pixels is far larger : each one has 50 % more area than true 4K. Pixel shifting projectors project a pixel, switch it up to the right, by a half diameter, and project it again, with modified data, but that second gear pixel overlaps the first gear. In other words, pixel shifting can not produce adjacent vertical lines of RGBRGB or other colors where each pipeline is one pixel ( 1/3840th of the screen ) wide. adjacent loss and green pixels would end up looking like yellow, with a bang on one side of loss, on the other of green – except that the future cable of pixels overlaps angstrom well, changing the color of that periphery. 4K UHD or 1080p pixel shifting can not reveal the finely detail of a true 4K projector such as those Sony ships ( business, education and family markets ). besides, JVC has one true 4K projector priced at $ 35,000 ( as of mid-2017 ). so while 4K UHD appears like it has a pixel structures with 1/4 the area of 1080p, that does not happen with pixel shifting. only a true 4K projector offers that level of resolution. This is why “ truthful ” 4K projectors cost sol much more than 4K UHD projectors with differently exchangeable feature sets. They produce smaller pixels, finer resolution, no compromising of detail or color from overlapping pixels. By comparison, the slender difference in expression proportion between DCI and 3840 × 2160 pixel displays without overlap is insignificant relative to the amount of detail. Some companies like Kaleidescape offer media servers that allow for 4K UHD Blu-ray movies with high dynamic range in a home theater.
In November 2014, United States satellite provider DirecTV became the first pay television provider to offer entree to 4K content, although limited to selected video-on-demand films. In August 2015, British sports network BT Sport launched a 4K prey, with its first broadcast being the 2015 FA Community Shield football match. Two production units were used, producing the traditional air in high-definition, and a separate 4K broadcast. As the network did not want to mix 4K footage with upconverted HD footage, this telecast did not feature of speech traditional studio segments at pre-game or half-time, but those hosted from the stadium by the match commentators using a 4K camera. BT envisioned that if viewers wanted to watch studio analysis, they would switch to the HD air and then back for the game. footage was compressed using H.264 encoders and transmitted to BT Tower, where it was then transmitted back to BT Sport studios and decompressed for distribution, via 4K-compatible BT TV set-top boxes on an eligible BT Infinity internet design with at least a 25 Mbit/s connection. In late 2015 and January 2016, three canadian television receiver providers – including Quebec -based Vidéotron, Ontario-based Rogers Cable, and Bell Fibe television, announced that they would begin to offer 4K compatible set-top boxes that can stream 4K contented to subscribers over gigabit internet serve. On October 5, 2015, alongside the announcement of its 4K set-top box and gigabit internet, canadian media conglomerate Rogers Communications announced that it planned to produce 101 sports telecasts in 4K in 2016 via its Sportsnet division, including all Toronto Blue Jays home games, and “ marquee ” National Hockey League games Beginning in January 2016. Bell Media announced via its TSN division a slate of 4K telecasts to begin on January 20, 2016, including selected Toronto Raptors games and regional NHL games. On January 14, 2016, in cooperation with BT Sport, Sportsnet broadcast the first always NBA game produced in 4K – a Toronto Raptors / Orlando Magic game at O2 Arena in London, England. On January 20, besides during a Raptors game, TSN presented the first live 4K telecast produced in North America. Three days later, Sportsnet presented the foremost NHL game in 4K. Dome Productions, a joint guess of Bell Media and Rogers Media ( the respective owners of TSN and Sportsnet ), constructed a “ side-by-side ” 4K fluid output unit shared by Sportsnet and TSN ‘s foremost 4K telecasts ; it was designed to operate alongside a separate HD truck and utilize cameras capable of output in both formats. For the open game of the 2016 Toronto Blue Jays season, Dome constructed “ trillium ” – a production truck integrating both 4K and 1080i high-definition units. Bell Media ‘s CTV besides broadcast the 2016 Juno Awards in 4K as the first awards show presented in the format. In February 2016, Univision trialed 4K by producing a closed circuit telecast of a football friendly between the national teams of Mexico and Senegal from Miami in the format. The broadcast was streamed privately to several special viewing locations. Univision aimed to develop a 4K streaming app to publicly televise the final of Copa América Centenario in 4K. In March 2016, DirecTV and CBS Sports announced that they would produce the “ Amen Corner ” auxiliary coverage from the Masters golf tournament in 4K. In recently 2016, Telus television announced that they would begin to offer 4K compatible set-top boxes. After having trialed the engineering in limited matches at the 2013 FIFA Confederations Cup, and the 2014 FIFA World Cup ( via secret tests and public viewings in the host city of Rio de Janeiro ), the 2022 FIFA World Cup was the first FIFA World Cup in which all matches were produced in 4K. Host Broadcasting Services stated that at least 75 % of the broadcast ignore on each match would come from 4K cameras ( covering the majority of independent angles ), with clamant replays and some television camera angles being upconverted from 1080p Sources. These broadcasts were made available from selected rightsholders, such as the BBC in the United Kingdom, and selected television providers in the United States.
|Examples of some 4K resolutions used in displays and media|
|–||4096 ×3072||1. 33∶1 (4∶3)||12,582,912|
|–||4096 ×2560||1.60∶1 (16∶10)||10,485,760|
|–||4096 ×2304||1. 77∶1 (16∶9)||9,437,184|
|DCI 4K (full frame)||4096 ×2160||≈1.90∶1 (256∶135)||8,847,360|
|DCI 4K (CinemaScope cropped)||4096 ×1716||≈2.39∶1 (1024∶429)||7,020,544|
|DCI 4K (flat cropped)||3996 ×2160||1.85∶1 (≈37∶20)||8,631,360|
|WQUXGA||3840 ×2400||1.60∶1 (16∶10)||9,216,000|
|4K UHD||3840 ×2160||1. 77∶1 (16∶9)||8,294,400|
|–||3840 ×1600||2.40∶1 (12∶5)||6,144,000|
|–||3840 ×1080||3. 55∶1 (32∶9)||4,147,200|
The solution of 3840 × 2160 is the dominant allele 4K resolution in the consumer media and display industries. This is the resolving power of the UHDTV1 format defined in SMPTE ST 2036-1, vitamin a well as the 4K UHDTV format defined by ITU-R in Rec. 2022, and is besides the minimum resolution for CEA ‘s definition of Ultra HD displays and projectors. The resolution of 3840 × 2160 was besides chosen by the DVB plan for their 4K broadcasting standard, UHD-1. This resolving power has an expression ratio of 16∶9, with 8,294,400 total pixels. It is precisely bivalent the horizontal and vertical resolution of 1080p ( 1920 × 1080 ) for a sum of 4 times as many pixels, and triple the horizontal and vertical solution of 720p ( 1280 × 720 ) for a entire of 9 times as many pixels. It is sometimes referred to as “ 2160p ”, based on the appointment patterns established by the former 720p and 1080p HDTV standards. In 2013, televisions capable of displaying UHD resolutions were seen by consumer electronics companies as the adjacent trip for an upgrade cycle after a miss of consumer concern in 3D television.
This resolution is used chiefly in digital cinema production, and has a sum of 8,847,360 pixels with an expression ratio of 256∶135 ( ≈19∶10 ). It was standardized as the resolution of the 4K container format defined by Digital Cinema Initiatives in the Digital Cinema System stipulation, and is the native resolution of all DCI-compliant 4K digital projectors and monitors. The DCI specification allows respective different resolutions for the capacity inside the container, depending on the desire aspect ratio. The allow resolutions are defined in SMPTE 428-1 : : §3.2.1 : p. 6
- 4096 ×2160 (full frame, 256∶135 or ≈1.90∶1 aspect ratio)
- 3996 ×2160 (flat crop, 1.85∶1 aspect ratio)
- 4096 ×1716 (CinemaScope crop, ≈2.39∶1 aspect ratio)
The DCI 4K standard has doubly the horizontal and vertical settlement of DCI 2K ( 2048 × 1080 ), with four times as many pixels overall. Digital movies made in 4K may be produced, scanned, or stored in a total of early resolutions depending on what storage expression ratio is used. In the digital cinema production chain, a resolution of 4096 × 3112 is much used for acquiring “ open gate ” or anamorphic input material, a resolution based on the historic solution of scanned Super 35 millimeter film.
other 4K resolutions .
diverse other non-standardized 4K resolutions have been used in displays, including :
- 4096 ×2560 (1.60∶1 or 16∶10); this resolution was used in the Canon DP-V3010, a 30-inch (76 cm) 4K reference monitor designed for reviewing cinema footage in post-production, released in 2013.
- 4096 ×2304 (1. 77∶1 or 16∶9); this resolution was used in the 21.5-inch (55 cm) LG UltraFine 22MD4KA 4K monitor, jointly announced by LG and Apple in 2016 and used in the 21.5″ 4K Retina iMac computer.
- 3840 ×2400 (1.60∶1 or 16∶10); this resolution was used in the 22.2-inch (56 cm) IBM T220 and T221 monitors, released in 2001 and 2002 respectively. This resolution is also referred to as “WQUXGA”, and is four times the resolution of WUXGA (1920 ×1200).
- 3840 ×1600 (2.40∶1 or 12∶5); a number of computer monitors with this resolution have been produced, the first being the 37.5-inch (95 cm) LG 38UC99-W released in 2016. This resolution is equivalent to WQXGA (2560 ×1600) extended in width by 50%, or 3840 ×2160 reduced in height by ≈26%. LG refers to this resolution as “WQHD+” (Wide Quad HD+), while Acer uses the term “UW-QHD+” (Ultra-wide Quad HD+) and some media outlets have used the term “UW4K” (Ultra-wide 4K).
- 3840 ×1080 (3. 55∶1 or 32∶9); this resolution was first used in the Samsung C49HG70, a 49-inch (120 cm) curved gaming monitor released in 2022. This resolution is equivalent to dual 1080p displays (1920 ×1080) side-by-side, but with no border interrupting the image. It is also exactly one half of a 4K UHD (3840 ×2160) display. Samsung refers to this resolution as “DFHD” (Dual Full HD).
Sony Handycam FDR-AX1
Detail benefit .
The main advantage of recording television at the 4K standard is that fine spatial contingent is resolved well. Individual still frame extracted from 3840×2160-pixel television footage can act as 8.3 megapixel placid photographs, while alone 2.1 megapixels at 1080p and 0.9 megapixels at 720p. If the final examination video quality is reduced to 2K from a 4K recording, more detail is apparent than would have been achieved from a native 2K record. Increased fineness and contrast is then potential with output signal to DVD and Blu-ray. Some cinematographers record at 4K with the Super 35 film format to offset any resolution loss that may occur during video recording work.
Chroma subsampling .
In full size, this persona shows the difference between four subsampling schemes. Note how alike the semblance images appear. The lower row shows the solution of the color information. many consumer electronics such as fluid phones store video recording footage in Y′CBCR format with 4:2:0 saturation subsampling, which records color information at only one quarter the resolution as the brightness information. For 3840 × 2160 video, this means that the color information is only stored at 1920 × 1080.
Bit rates .
consumer cameras and fluid phones record 2160p footage at much higher bite rates ( normally 50 to 100 Mbit/s ) than 1080p ( normally 10 to 30 Mbit/s ). This higher morsel rate reduces the visibility of compression artifacts, even if viewed on monitors with a lower solution than 2160p .